Sunday, May 2, 2010

Solution to the World Food Crisis: Bugs and Arachnids?.

Abstract: More than 50,000 people die every day due to malnutrition and around 800,000,000 people go to bed hungry every night. [32] The solution to such overwhelming issues regarding world hunger is complicated and more than one option is necessary. Human entomophagy is a viable option due to availability, the ease of raising in any conditions, and relatively low costs for which there is very little impact if any at all to the environment. The eating of insects and arachnids has been practiced by many cultures for thousands of years. The disgust and revulsion by most people in Europe and Western Civilization must be overcome by education and assimilation of such resources to make this a workable solution. Study of how insects are used, collected and prepared is an important model to study. Community teaching by schools, governments, charity organizations, and awareness groups are necessary in order to support the introduction and availability of edible insects and arachnids. Such influences have been shown to have an effect upon the type of food a community finds edible and is the how an entomophagy diet can be made acceptable. Community, the family unit, and person can be won over in order to answer the many food problems throughout the world and improve the environment simultaneously. When such items are commonplace, farmed, readily available and acceptable to most if not all palates will allow the lessening of the disease and starvation throughout the world.
Entomophagy, the eating of insects, is a widely accepted practice throughout the world and an answer to hunger and malnutrition in areas of disaster and poverty. Many countries have developed self-reliance by ingesting nutrients from an indigenous and prevalent source - arachnids and insects. Universities and scientists have also jumped on the “bug wagon,” promoting entomophagy because of its low impact on the environment and the high nutritional value of insects.[2] Insects are prevalent, nutritious, and farming or trapping of certain insects and arachnids is a manageable and profitable enterprise. The introduction of insects and arachnids into a modern diet is now becoming acceptable in some parts of Western culture due to outside cultural influences. Human entomophagys further promotion will have a significant impact upon reducing the number of deaths due to starvation and disease.
Jumping on the “Bug” Wagon
Scientists have been pushing the value of bug eating for more than 100 years. Vincent M. Holt’s publication of 1885 touted the benefits of bug eating by encouraging man to “try for himself the unknown delicacies around him.” [12]
The nutritional value of insects is equal to or better than meat and soy products. Crickets have 20.6g of protein per 100 grams of cricket while lean ground beef has 24 grams of protein, yet the house cricket has only 1/3 of the fat that the beef does, 4 times the amount of calcium, and more than double the amount of iron. [10] Body builders would do well to know that 100 grams of caterpillars gives you 370 calories but a huge amount of protein, 28g! You would have to eat 5 eggs to get the same amount. [25]
In the Congo caterpillars are a dietary necessity. “Edible insects from forests are an important source of protein, and unlike those from agricultural land, they are free of pesticides," said Paul Vantomme, an FAO forestry expert. [14]
Sapelli caterpillars[15]

Insects also have high levels of vitamins and minerals. Bee larvae contain so much Vitamin A that one must be careful not to overdose (a very painful death). Termites have 35.5mg of iron/100g and are rich in magnesium and copper. Caterpillars contain high levels of B2 and copper also. [11]
Acceptance of Entomophagy
Regardless of the nutritional benefits of insects, the cultures of Europe and the West view entomophagy as something only to be performed on Fear Factor. There are three factors that determine what and how a person eats. First, eating habits are established early within the familial structure. Second, the ‘norms’ of society and community set an acceptable “food code.” For example, several taboos surround eating crickets for members of the Yoruba tribes who do not generally eat crickets because many worship Ogun, the iron god, and he forbids animals that have no blood. While others believe that eating crickets is childish. Sydney Mintz states in his book, Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating, Culture and the Past, that “for each individual, eating is a basis for linking the world of things to the world of ideas through one’s acts—and thus also a basis for relating oneself to the rest of the world.” [22] Third, the choice of what to eat ultimately lies with the person based upon personal preference. “Attempts to change our eating habits may disrupt power structures, violate socio-cultural identity or morality, and require significant shifts in all of these. There is evidence that our attitude toward consuming insects fits within this framework.” [38] The irrational repulsion for insects is a result of culture and has no scientific basis[11]. As noted earlier in this paper, most insects have a nice pleasant taste once cooked and should not be disdained just because they are insects. [20]
The most beneficial animals for human consumption and for the environment are edible insects and arachnids. The Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested Food (ECI) rating of animals is determined by how much weight the animal gains from 100 pounds of its intake (feed). The worst on the scale is sheep and beef which for every 100 pounds of feed only produce 5.3 and 10 pounds of meat respectively. The impact on the environment has been taking its toll for hundreds of years.[10] Farmers now are up to their necks in manure since they can’t find enough ways to get rid of it. There is an industry for the dung beetle created just for this but it cannot possibly fill the void and the neighbors, quite literally, are beginning to complain. Lawsuits for “manure nuisance” have become a normal part of life for livestock farmers.[19] The farming of insects is much more efficient with the ECI for silkworm caterpillars at 19 to 31 and the ECI for pale western cutworms is even more significant at 37. [10]
More than just the food intake of livestock, the amount of water used by livestock has a huge impact on the stability of the region. For just 1/3 pound of beef production it takes 869 gallons of water.[9] That’s about one hamburger!
In 2006 the United Nations report said the livestock sector was “one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.” The report found that eighteen percent of all greenhouse-gas emissions are from livestock production and this is expected to double every five years.[18][23]
To ease the human impact on the environment and meet the dietary needs necessary for survival, the repugnance for entomophagy needs to be overcome. This task seems insurmountable but not impossible. Small children have been known to stick anything in their mouths including sticks, spiders, and old gum but by the time they reach the age around seven they have instilled in them the cultural “food code” telling them what is food and what is not.[38] The answer then is “food modeling” at an early enough age. This will be a long process since parents and the culture will need to be slowly won over to insect eating in order to train the younger generation that this is an acceptable food source.
There are many schools, communities, zoos, and children’s museums that annually sponsor bug festivals celebrating the eating of arthropods throughout the United States. The Bug Bowl at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana has over 10,000 visitors attend. The favorite of most who attend is the insect petting zoo and the cricket-spitting contest. Other activities include a cockroach race and sampling of various insect culinary delights.[6]
Taste of the Wild Side in New Orleans, Louisiana during spring every year showcases worldwide bug cuisine. Their emphasis is on the normality of eating insects every day. They have also been experimenting with eating the local pest Coptotermes formosanus, the subterranean termite. [6]
To incorporate bug eating into everyday life the company Sunrise Land Shrimp was started up in 2005 by David Gracer. The company’s primary focus is entomophagy education. Gracer is a one man show that visits schools and communities encouraging the practice of bug eating. “Eat a bug, save the planet.” Gracer’s very entertaining interview on Colbert Nation can be viewed on-line. [9]
The FoodFactory created by Bart Hogebrink is designed to combat world hunger. The company industrially rears insects for food. This project does away with the harvesting in the wild thereby reducing this labor intensive way of gathering and lessening the chances of species extinction or endangerment. This is also the answer to seasonal issues of unavailability. This is a cheap, controllable opportunity for even the poorest community to produce enough food to survive. Hogebrink’s project teaches, employs, and over time establishes a sustainable factory that can be turned over to the community or local entrepreneurs for continuation. [13]
There are more and more countries that are turning, and in some cases returning to entomophagy, as a vital protein source[39]. The high prices of rice and the unavailability of many resources have the people of these countries turning to their own resources for an answer, while others use entomophagy as their primary source of protein.
The natives of Australia, the aborigines, have been capturing and eating insects for thousands of years. The necessity of entomophagy in Australia is due to its desert climate which accounts for more than two-thirds of the continent with more than 3,000 hours of sunshine during the year[1]. Alice Springs is one of the driest areas in Australia and home to a majority of the aborigines of the country. They carry on the traditions of their ancestors by digging up and finding insects for consumption. Inside the root of the Witchetty bush is found the delicious Witchetty grub, larvae of the Cossid moth (LEPIDOPTERA: Cossidae: Endoxyla leucomochla) called “witjuti.” It can be tossed into the hot coals of a fire until toasted, wiped off and then eaten, no forks or spoons needed. Author Peter Menzel says it tastes like “nut-flavored scrambled eggs and mild mozzarella, wrapped in phyllo dough pastry[20].”
Another delicacy would be the grubs contained in the galls of the blood wood tree. The galls are created by the female wasp, Cystococcus echiniformis. The wasp irritates the tree by burrowing under the bark where she then lays her eggs. The gall is broken open and the grubs eaten raw tasting of nuts[20].
An insect that is highly favored by the aborigines is one of the sweetest, the honeypot ants, Melophorus bagoti and the black honeypot ants, Camponotus inflatus (HYMENOPTERA: Formicidae)[11]. Found in nests about two feet under the ground, the swollen “replete” ants can be plucked from the walls of the burrows and their abdomens bitten off for the sweet honey contained within. The repletes are a food storage for their hive, keeping the sweet nectar within themselves to be regurgitated when needed by the colony[20].
In south-eastern Australia, the bogong moth is so numerous during summer it could not be ignored as a food source by native Australians. Records indicate that millions of the adult moth Agrotis infusa, were collected throughout the caverns and cave systems of the mountains for the yearly feast dating back to 1000 CE until the 1890s. The moths breed in the Great Dividing Range migrating later in the summer to the cooler temperate areas of south-eastern Australia near Mount Bogong. During their migration the moths congregate and feed on flowering gums in order to maintain the energy needed for their journey to the cave systems on the coast. Once they reach the cave systems of the coast and enter diapause they are collected, cooked amid the hot ashes of the fire, and then smashed into “moth meat.” Many who have tried this ‘meat’ refer to it as “tasting of walnuts.” A more modern annual celebration festival for the arrival of the bogong moth is held at the Mungabareena Reserve in Albury. This festival, called the Ngan Girra Festival, is held on the last Saturday of November, featuring competitions of spear and boomerang throwing, aborigine performers and of course the sampling of the moth. But don’t eat too many they have trace amounts of arsenic in them[1][8].

Moths congregate and feast on a flowering gum[37] honeypot ant replete full of honey[35]

Japan seems to have its finger on the pulse of the bug market. It is decades farther than the rest of the world in breeding, farming, and exporting this natural protein source. Long standing cultural entomophagy exists throughout Japan. It is hypothesized that the practice of capturing and eating insects began with the people of the mountains due to the scarcity of protein available for consumption thousands of years ago[17]. In Tokyo today you would be able choose from a variety of insect dishes at most restaurants. Such dishes include sangi (fried silk moth pupae), zaza-mushi (caddisfly larvae), hachi-no-ko (boiled wasp larvae of about 500 different species), semi (fried cicada), and inago (fried rice-field grasshoppers) [31].
Sangi is one of the most popular dishes. The silk moths, Bombyx mori, once they pupate will no longer spin silk and are sold as a by product of the silk industry. Because they are farmed they are the most readily available and prevalent of the insect dishes. Like most larvae in Japan they are fried with sugar and soy sauce. [31]
The caddisfly larvae (Glossosoma inops) taste best when caught in December and January. A net is laid in the river and then upstream a number of rocks are overturned by using pickaxes. The larvae are then laboriously hand-picked out of the net and thrown instantly into a pot of boiling water for 10 minutes. They are then laid out on newspapers and any debris from the river is cleaned off of them. The larvae can then be either sold or taken home to be stir-fried and eaten with a sprinkling of soy sauce and sugar.[20]
Boiled wasp larvae are a delicacy treasured in Japan at many breakfast tables. The wasp larvae are removed from the nests and cooked the traditional Japanese way of insects (with soy sauce and sugar). Their taste is “slightly sweet with a crumbly texture.” [17]
Boiled wasp larvae[17]

Cicadas are a treasure worth the 17-year wait. This long lived insect spends 17 years in the soil as a larva until finally digging out, finding a nearby tree to climb and breaking free of its skin into the adult form. They are best when captured right after this molt and cooked. The Japanese love them, too bad they can’t convince anyone in Chicago, another area that is plagued with these critters every 17 years. [17]
Grasshoppers (locusts), Oxya japonica, are another plague-like insect that are collected by the ton in Japan. In fact, Tsukahara Delicacy, a 72-year old company sold more than 4 tons last year. The Sichuan XWX City Agricultural Department Co. breeds the grasshoppers which are then sold live, freeze dried, frozen, or canned and exported all over the world. [17][24]

Eating insects in China is not just to ward off starvation during emergency situations but part of a normal healthy diet when they become available during the year. The use of insects in medicines and wines is purported to cure anything from digestion to tumors. Guangzhou market is crawling with almost every edible insect and arachnid available, the aisles are filled with boxes of beetles, fried spiders, scorpions on sticks, water bugs in barrels, and cartons of dried bumblebees. [20]
In southern China many people ‘farm’ scorpions in their backrooms or even their bedrooms to be sold at the market for consumption. Scorpions are mostly deep fried and served on crispy noodles or used in scorpion soup. The scorpions are whole except for the stinger on the tail which is snipped off with scissors, the venom sacs are not removed but cooking breaks down the toxins. They are reported to have a “woody” or “barbequed bug” taste[20] [36]. Unfortunately, not all scorpions are farmed and some scorpions such as the Mesobuthus martensi are now endangered due to collection and the use of pesticides. [20]
Chinese Golden Scorpion[21]

The medicinal properties of caterpillar fungus, ant wine, and Chongcha tea makes them popular and very expensive (about $500 a lb. for the fungus). The caterpillar fungus called dong chong xia coa that has infested and mummified the caterpillar is used to treat many maladies including tuberculosis and colds. The fungus is used in soups and studies have found antitumor properties in some of the fungi. The ant wine however, made from ants of the genus, Polyrhachis, has been not been well studied but thought to help with rheumatism and to fight against hepatitis B. Those few tests performed on the wine have found that it as effective as ginseng tea in aiding the immune system. This has not deterred the curative declarations by those who pander it though or its popularity, along with the highly demanded Chongcha tea, another medicinal cure said to taste like dirt. It is made from the frass (excrement) of the moths Hydrillodes morose and Aglossa dimidita and used to treat hemorrhoids and diarrhea. [20]
Many insects of Thailand are used for their famous chili sauces so it seems just as natural that they should be on the dinner table as a regular entrée. The Thai people prefer such tasty treats as maeng man (giant winged ants), dung beetles, water bugs, rod fai duan “bamboo worms,” termites, June bugs, mole crickets, silk worms, and brown grasshoppers.[4][16]
At night the countryside is lit by the neon glow of neighbor’s black lights. Such lights are used to attract and capture nocturnal insects such as water bugs and June bugs. The bugs fly to the light landing on the sheet of plastic hung beneath it. They are unable to get an adequate hold to the plastic so the bugs slide down into the bucket of water below where they can be gathered in the light of day. [20]
Giant weaver ant eggs are used on toast or salads and also found in chili paste form which can be ordered from The giant ants can be farmed for their eggs but it is a lengthy process and usually done on a large scale. [30]
Dung beetles (adults) are captured during the monsoon season in the Northeast of Thailand. Their taste is better at this time of year and can be preserved by dehydration and a lot of seasoning. Since dung beetles eat dung all the time their taste leaves much to be desired. [30]
Giant water bugs, Lethocerus indica, are eaten for their large muscles. They are deep fried but be warned, eating the entire bug can leave a rancid taste in the mouth that is hard to get rid of. The best way to eat it is like one would eat a crab, avoid the guts and eat only the meat, what little there is of it. [20] [28]
Giant Waterbugs[28]

The bamboo worms are actually moth larvae (Myelobia smerintha) that are found in the stems of bamboo. Once deep fried, they resemble dark cheese puffs. They are a favorite snack because of their light sweet taste. The worms are raised on farms and are fried and then seasoned and packaged for sale[30].
Chapulines, agave worms, stink bugs, mealworms, and leaf-footed bugs are an integral part of Mexican culinary culture. These important insects contribute to industry and festivals that have been in place for hundreds of years. [29][32][33]
The red agave worms, also called maguey worms, are found on the maguey cacti used for the making of mezcal, a darker rendition of tequila. The worms are used in the mezcal (the worm in your tequila) but also can be sold to other mezcal makers or in the market as a food commodity. They are another source of income to the farmer along with being part of his dinner. Agave worms are fried and served with refried beans on corn tortillas with cheese and sour cream, and guacamole. They are best when fresh so are usually sold live. [20]
Chapulines, grasshoppers, in Mexico are available seasonally in almost every field, no farm is needed. It usually helps to have more than one pair of hands though, one to chase the grasshoppers to the bucket and the other pair shoving them in it. Grasshopper tacos are a regular menu item all the way up into Texas. All agree that the smaller the grasshopper the better tasting since they don’t seem to get better with age. Early instars are always best as grasshoppers take on a rancid taste when they become adults. [5][32] [34]
Jumil Day is the celebration of the stink bug, including such species as Euchistus taxcoensis and Atizies taxcoensis and Edessa Mexicana. They are served to distinguished guests, a tradition dating back to the Aztecs[29]. It is celebrated southwest of Mexico City on a mountaintop. The stink bugs also called the Mount Bug are eaten raw, putting up a fight even after they are crushed between the teeth by leaving their repugnant taste in the mouth. Stink bugs are also used for taco sauces and taco filling. [20]
Tenbrio molitar, yellow mealworms are the easiest of the insects to raise because they breed quickly. Mexicans sell bagfuls of these easily farmed insects live and squirming to be taken home and prepared in a variety of dishes. Mealworm spaghetti, although not quite authentic Mexican faire, is a favorite. [27]
Another in demand dish, especially for the younger crowd, is a sweet tasting leaf-footed bug pizza. The bugs can be easily caught due to their slow metabolism but are good fliers so a net is usually needed. They are considered to be a pest and are monitored in many agricultural communities. [20][27]
Leaf-footed Pizza[20]

When it came to survival of the people of northeast Indonesia they used bugs in their everyday cooking. In more modern times these people were able to move to the larger cities and brought their “bug-eating” habits with them[4]. Sago palm worms, stink bugs, bee larvae, beetles, and spiders are part of the everyday diet now throughout Indonesia[20].
The sago worms, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae), can be found in dead and rotting sago palms. By tearing through the outer layer of the tree the worms can be found and collected in the mushy pulpy middle of the palm. The worms are a delight to many with their fatty bacon-flavor. [20]
Stink bugs are also very popular. Children will climb small trees to catch them and pop them in their mouths for a mid-day snack. Mulikaks (spiders) that have made their webs below the tree can also be captured using a stick to wind the spider up in their own silk. Those stinkbugs that are not eaten right away are wrapped in leaves and taken back along with the spiders to be roasted beside the fire. [20]
Bee brood (pupae) can be purchased in the market but go fast. The bee larvae are the late instar pupae called the honey bee brood. They are collected along with the honey and wax and sold as curatives for many remedies. Yet, many people buy them just to enjoy their cake-like sweetness[3]. The larvae can be cooked in banana leaves [4] or sections of the brood comb can be made into bakuti. Bakuti is made by squeezing the brood comb while it is in a fabric bag. The liquid that is squeezed from the comb is collected and heated for about 5 minutes. The bakuti can be spread on toast or crackers and is similar to mushy scrambled eggs that tastes of nuts. The brood combs are farmed but there is also a more active foraging in the wild by groups called “Honey Hunters.” [3]
On the other hand, the ulat-kayu known as the Dynastid beetle larvae, Oryctes rhinoceros, are not actively hunted. They are found in the hardwood logs that the Asmattan people split for raft-making. They are a nice “woody” treat that is eaten raw and a just reward for all that hard work. [20]
Dragonflies are a popular treat in Bali but quite hard to catch. In order to catch these fast glittering creatures a slender stick of palmwood is covered with the sap of a jackfruit tree[20]. The stick is flicked out to capture the dragonflies on the sap as they fly over the marshy rice fields[20]. Dragonflies are best if grilled over charcoal or boiled in a soup of coconut milk, peppers, ginger, and garlic. Although some just prefer to fry them with coconut oil. The wings are taken off prior to cooking and the latex (sap of the jackfruit used to catch the insect) on the dragonflies is removed with cooking oil[31]. In restaurants in Bali they serve the delightful entrée called Sky Prawns[10].
Like many countries in Asia the Cambodians love their grasshoppers, cicadas, ant eggs, and other asian insect munchies. What sets them apart is their deep fried tarantulas sold by the roadside in Northern Cambodia. The tarantula is said to aid in virility and eaten only by men. [20] Those who eat them say that they taste like crab, but with hair[10].
South Africa
Last year alone 1600 tons of mopane worms (a.k.a. mopani worms) were harvested and sold. The demand for the larvae of the emperor moth seems insatiable and has led to its decline and even absence throughout Africa. This led to the creation of the Mopane Worm and Mopane Woodland Project, by various organizations from Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, and the UK. Their goals were to “increase economic and nutritional benefits for poor rural people through mopane worm harvesting and production” by the monitoring of the population and establishment of ‘farms’ of mopane worms. Unfortunately, the project was closed in 2005 due to many issues such as drought, viral infections causing high mortality rate in the worms, and the project not being cost effective. [23] However, there are now more successful projects such as the Greater Giyani Natural Resources Development Programme partnering with the University of Pretoria that is training the local people to properly harvest the worm and forming co-ops for exportation of mopane worm products. [14][15]
The worm is considered to be at its finest after the 4th molt prior to adulthood. This occurs during the winter months and can be found burrowed in the ground where it is hand plucked by those wishing to eat and/or sell the precious worm. The worm is quite susceptible to parasites and viral infections with a 40% mortality rate. After harvesting the worm it is squeezed at the tail end and whipped about in order to expel its innards. The worm is then roasted, boiled in salt, or baked in the sun for preservation. It is usually eaten as a dry snack or rehydrated and served with vegetables. [7] A world full of insects means a world of food at our fingertips if we can only learn to appreciate it. A food supply that is sustainable for areas of disaster and areas where hunger is keenly felt can be made available by the World Food Organization, FoodFactory, and other companies including the FAO. Schools such as Purdue University and local organizations such as city zoos are encouraging bug eating and educating the general public through festivals and interactive displays that this is an acceptable and environmentally friendly way to eat. Study of different cultures and their habits of collecting and preparation of various insects and arachnids over thousands of year’s aid in ideas and further enlightenment of Europe and Western cultures to the viability of entomophagy. Scientists study and research into nutritional aspects of entomophagy along with environmental impact statements encourage the support of political groups and governments to promote awareness to the general public. Such practices and support will result in their prevalence. To make entomophagy an acceptable behavior each and every person needs to evaluate their diet and be willing to try this new form of conservation. Federal programs promoting insect farms and introduction of such practices through the school systems and other programs along with tax incentives for such endeavors are the way to get immediate results and overcome repugnance. The time is now to begin training the next generation to appreciate what we have – about 88 million edible insects per person. [10]
Vic Cherikoff’s Witchetty Grub Dip[20]

5 large Witchetty grubs
1 teaspoon vegetable oil
1 pinch salt
1 cup low-fat sour cream
½ cup ricotta cheese

Roast or fry grubs in oil until well-browned. Season lightly with salt, then blend to a smooth paste in a food processor with other ingredients. Serve with flatbread.

Witchetty Soup from Down Under[20]

10 fresh Witchetty grubs
40 mL oil
1 liter stock
2 chicken boullion cubes
½ cup powdered milk, made fairly thick
½ cup onions, chopped
Some flour
Pepper & salt to taste

Sauté grubs in oil. Add stock, chicken cubes, dried onions, pepper & salt.
Cook for 30 min. then add milk. Add a little water to flour to make a paste and pour paste into soup to thicken.


2 lbs. zaza-mushi (aquatic caddis fly larvae)
2 cups sugar
¾ cup soy sauce

Boil zaza-mushi for 10 minutes. Sauté with sugar and soy sauce until lightly browned.

Scorpion Soup[20]

½ c. vegetable oil
30 – 50 live scorpions, washed
125 g fresh pork
1 lg. garlic bulb, crushed
Fresh ginger root, about 3cm, chopped
Salt and pepper
½ litre water
1 handful of Chinese dates
1 handful dried red berries
1 lg. carrot, sliced herbs

Heat oil in a large frying pan or wok. Stir fry scorpions for 20 sec. Add pork and garlic. Season with salt and pepper. Fry briefly and add water.
Add remainder of ingredients and simmer for 40 minutes.

Orthopteran Orzo[10]

3 c. vegetable broth 1 T butter
1 c. orzo 1 clove garlic, minced
½ c. grated carrot ½ c. chopped onion
¼ c. finely diced red pepper 1 c. frozen two week old cricket nymphs, thawed
¼ c. finely diced green pepper 2 T chopped parsley

Bring broth to boil and stir in orzo. Boil for 10 min. until orzo is tender, drain then add carrot, red pepper, and green pepper. Mix evenly and set aside.

In separate pan, melt butter, add garlic, onions, and crickets. Sauté until onions clear and crickets browned. Combine with orzo, top with parsley, and serve.


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